STANDBY GENERATORS FOR HOME USE
This 2021 guide and review is designed to help you choose the right fixed automatic system for your home or business. It will tell you how standby generators operate, what types are available, and how to choose. You will find here a quick review of best brands and the lesser known details you need to know before you buy.
HOW THEY WORK
All stationary standby (on-grid) power systems include three main parts: an engine- generator set (genset), a transfer system, and a control circuit.
The genset is always mounted outdoors. It has to be hardwired to a transfer system and connected to a fuel line, such as natural gas or liquefied propane (LPG). The transfer system is installed indoors and wired between the utility lines and the distribution panel or subpanel. The control circuit is continuously monitoring the condition of the mains voltage. If the utility power is down or its voltage drops below a preset level, the control circuit starts up the generator. First it lets it warm up for certain time, typically from 5 seconds to 1 minute. Then it disconnects your house from utility lines and connects it to the generator. During the transfer time the control board is powered from an external battery. Note that although standby system operation is hands free, their maintenance is not- you need to change oil periodically and do other maintenance typical for engine-driven devices.
YOUR CONNECTION OPTIONS
There are two main stationary system configurations.
If wattage of the model you picked is sufficient to power the whole house, you can install a transfer system between the main service disconnect and your existing circuit panel. Your transfer switch should have the same or greater amperage than the main circuit breaker. With this setup, you don’t have to rewire individual branches since you will be switching the entire service.
My pick for best standby generators: Generac® Guardian® series.
If you chose a system that is not large enough to run the whole house, you will need to install a sub-panel for critical lines desired to be energized in an emergency. Automatic transfer systems often come with a built-in sub-panel. You will need to re-wire the selected circuits from the main box to this sub-panel.
With the first option, you pay more for a larger generator, but you save on the installation costs since you don’t have to move individual circuits. With the second option, you save on the genset, but pay extra for the labor.
Nowadays many automatic models come with a digital load management (DLM) control. This technology lets you prioritize your appliances. If your system approaches its maximum capacity, the DLM starts shedding non-essential loads to prevent overload. This allows you to buy a smaller lower cost generator.
WHAT TO CHOOSE
There are a number of genset brands available on the market. The main brands of standby systems on domestic market are Generac®, Kohler®, Briggs & Stratton, and Cummins® Onan®, with a recent addition of Champion Power Equipment. As far as I know, Siemens, Eaton and Honeywell lines were actually made by Generac. Likewise, GE and Milbank systems were manufactured by Briggs & Stratton. All these private labels as far as I know discontinued. Each of the above makers obviously has its pros and cons. Generac is the largest domestic manufacturer of home generators: its market share is about 70%. It offers a broad selection of residential air-cooled stationary systems in the power range from 6kW to 22kW. Generac Guardian series is on the low end of the price range. Kohler claims the fastest transfer time- its units restore power within 10 seconds of an outage. Generac Guardian and Champion seem to sell for the lowest cost per kilowatt. If you live in a salt air coastal area, you may want to consider a model with aluminum enclosure or with other corrosion-proof material. Most major brands offer 5 years of warranty. Champion offered 10-year warranty. Of course, all warranties have some limitations- refer to official documents for complete information. Briggs & Stratton currently operates under bankruptcy protection. The chart below compares selected models in the 14-17 kW range, which is the most popular size for small and median homes with a central a/c. For a detailed sizing and selection information get my Home Generator Guide displayed above.
|Model||Manufacturer||Rated Power||Enclosure||Transfer Switch|
|040630||Briggs & Stratton||17 kW||Steel||200A|
|14RESAL||Kohler||14 kW||Corrosion-proof composite||100A|
Note that the prices of course change frequently and always spike after a storm. A professional installation may cost additional $3,000-6,000 (if you are looking for a local installer or a free quote, check out this tool). Note that installation of a fixed system by yourself unfortunately may possibly void the manufacturer’s warranty and may violate local codes.
LESSER-KNOWN FACTS TO KNOW
- The advertised rating of most dual-fuel models (and the numbers in the above table) is for operation on propane. Maximum power with natural gas is normally 5-10% lower.
- Rated wattage is usually given for 60 oC at sea level. In summer and at higher elevations the available output will be lower.
- All automatic systems require a battery which is usually not included in the set.
- Advertised warranty is for residential use. Read fine print for commercial warranty. Often it is much shorter or excluded.
- If you have an older gas meter, its capacity may not be sufficient for high-power models. In this case you will need to contact your gas provider to change your meter. They may charge you from $500 to several thousand dollars for such an upgrade. However, if you are also adding a regular appliance that brings your fuel consumption above the meter rating, some utilities may upgrade it for free.